THE BUILDING BLOCK OF MY HOUSE
Construction of home is a Step by step process.After the concrete structure is made then comes the finishing of the structure which makes it look better and protects the wall from environmental hazards.For that plastering is done upon the bricks & beams.But plastering is mostly done upon the bricks and the brick work is done previously after the vertical beam construction.
If you are doing your home construction you should know about these work details for strengthening of your home & the workers can not mislead you.
Brick masonry is very much important as it carries the load of the horizontal beams.
If it is not done perfectly then the total structure may disrupt during the work, making huge loss.So it is better to perform each step properly in construction process so that the structure would stand for long time.For brick masonry following things should be taken care so that it would not create any disorder in the process of the rest of the construction process.
But before that the material used for brick work should be chosen wisely.So we are going to discuss the types of brick first as it is the main component of brick.
Types of brick:-
- Common Burnt Clay Bricks
- Fly ash Clay Bricks
- Concrete Bricks
- Engineering Bricks
- Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks)
- Other Brick Types include bullnose, channel, coping, cownose and hollow bricks.
- Along with brick there is also required other material such as cement,sand and water.
Choosing right Bricks:-
- Bricks should be well burnt and of uniform size & colour.
- Striking two bricks together should produce a metallic ringing sound.
- The surface should be hard enough to resist scratches.
- Should not break ,if dropped from 1 m above ground level.
- Bricks must be soaked in water for a minimum of 8 hours before use; else it will absorb moisture from mortar.
- A Good brick shouldn’t absorb more than 20% moisture by weight .For example ,a brick weighing 2 kg should not weigh more than 2.4 kg if kept immersed in water for 24 hours.
- After choosing right brick the next process is the brick work.For brickwork process different tools & equipment are required .
Tools & Equipment
- Mortar Mix or Mason Mix Bricks
- Tape measure
- Hose, level, or theodolite
- Trowel Level
Brickwork or Masonry work:-
- A systematic bond must be maintained throughout the brickwork. Vertical joints shouldn’t be continuous but staggered.
- Joint thickness should not exceed 1 centimetre .It should be thoroughly filled with cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 (by volume) depending upon the thickness of the wall and size of sand particles.
- All bricks should be placed upon on their bed .The depression on top provides space for the mortar to bond well. Line-string, plumb bob, and spirit level should be used for alignment ,vertically ,and horizontally for construction.
- Work should commence at the corners,first to a height of 3 or 4 layers with base extending in steps.
- Joints should be raked and properly finished with a trowel or float.
- A maximum of 1 metre wall height should be constructed in a day .
- Brickwork should be properly cured for at last 10 days.
Recommended mortar proportion for brick work:
4” central partition wall 1:4 (1 part cement & 4 parts sand by volume)
9” exterior wall 1:6 (1 part cement and 6 parts sand by volume)
Plastering is done to protect the surface of masonry from atmospheric influences, especially rain. It provides lateral stability by binding all bricks or stones and protects masonry joints.
Standard Specifications used for the Plastering Work.
There are Indian standards which need to be followed during plastering work:
Indian Standard (BIS codes)
- IS 383 Specification for coarse and fine aggregates for natural sources for concrete.
- IS 1542 Specifications for sand for plaster
- IS 2645 Specifications for integral cement waterproofing compound
- IS 8112 Specification for 43 grade OPC
- IS 269 Specification for 33 grade OPC
- IS 1489 Specification for Portland Pozzolana Cement
Procedure of Plastering Work:-
For preparing the plaster work first arrange the tools required for plaster:
- Trowel-A trowel is an important plastering tool that allows you to smooth the plaster after applying it to the wall.
- Hawk-A hawk is used by the professionals to carry the plaster with them as they move down the wall.
- Mud Pan-A mud pan can be used instead of a hawk for the less experienced plasterer.
- Sponge/Sandpaper-To clean the wall for plastering
- Jointing Knife-A utility knife or scissors will help cut plaster tape to size. The utility knife is employed to square out the edge of the hole to be plastered over if repairing damaged walls.
- Step Ladder-to reach the height
- Bucket-for water
Preparation of surface for plastering:-
- First clean the surface perfectly ,remove any debris or extra mortar is there.
- Then roughen the wall so that the mortar can adhere with the brick masonry perfectly.
- If there is any hole then fill it with appropriate material before plastering.
- Before plastering cure the wall perfectly at least 6 hours before.
Process of plastering work:-
- After this prepare the mortar mix
- Then put dots on the wall to make sure even layering of plasters on the wall.
- These dots are patch of plasters.
- Then put the first layer of plaster coat on wall & then second layer.
- Then level the surface by flat wooden edges.
Points to remember :-
- Remove loose mortar from joints and moisten the surface before plastering.
- And remove loose mortar from joints and moisten the surface before plastering.
- Use a 1:4 ratio mortar of cement and fine sand. For coarse sand, the ratio can be changed to 1:4 mix is preferred for best results.
- Ensure that the entire mix for the day is not prepared at one go.
- It is advisable to use the prepared mix within 1 hour. However,you can prepare and keep the dry mix ready.
- Ensure that the dry mix is uniform in colour before adding water.
- Use chicken wire mesh while plastering joints between concrete work & brickwork.
- Use a wooden float for finishing rather than steel float.
- Ensure continuous curing for 10 to 14 days.